1. a typical capillary has a high-pressure (arterial) and a low-pressure (venous) end. How does a glomerular capillary compare to this? what provides the low-pressure end for the glomerulus and how does this arrangement increase the ability of the kidney to filter the blood?
2. what will happen to the GFR and urine output if plasma protein production decreases (due to hepatitis, cirrhosis, or dietary protein deficit)?
3. assume you could peer into cells of the proximal convoluted tubule to examine their organelles. What clues could you use to help determine whether movement of solutes through the apical and basolateral cell membrances is passive or active?
4. what happen to the medullary osmotic gradient when ADH is secreed? How is the gradient reestablished?
5. why does excess alcohol intake result in “cotton mouth” the next morning?
6. does caffeine cause production of a more dilute urine, as in diabetes insipidus, or loss of excess solute?
7. what happens to the rate of RBC production in a patient on dialysis with total renal failure? what could be given to the patient to counteract such a problem?
8. what is the effect on the micturition reflex of the spinal cord transection above the pelvic splanchnic nerves?
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