Research Paper on Diamond
Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW ON DIAMONDS 1
RESEARCH PAPER ON DIAMONDS 5
Literature Review on Diamond
Columbia Southern University
Research Paper on Diamond
Diamond is the hardest type of gemstone usually found at the earth’s surface, and it is believed to be formed over long periods of time in the mantle of the earth, this is as a result of intense heat and pressure within the mantle that reacts with carbon to form crystalline particles. Diamond has continued to be the backbone of livelihood to a lot of people who depend on its mining either directly or indirectly. Although Diamond continues to play an active role in economic development, its mining activities have had serious environmental damage and impact (Prelas, 2018). Over the years, there has been an interesting study of Diamond and its extraction to ascertain and examine whether its advantages are more compared to disadvantages. The activities of diamond mining have hurt the environment, for example in mines like Kimberley in South Africa where large deep pits have been created that are filled with water and grow wider during rainfall to up above (Prelas, 2018). Twenty meters during heavy rains as per the complication by Hayley Mathews. This has drawn attention from environmental lobbyist from South Africa like Centre for Environmental Rights and Environmental Assessment Practitioners Association of South Africa to stir up a campaign protesting against further environmental degradation of Diamond mining activities and lobbying for measures to promote the protection of environmental use (Maconachie, & Binns, 2007).
Currently Diamond business has shifted to conflict-free and environmental friendly that demonizes natural industry in the process by eliminating conflicts and delivers both social and environmental benefits. With all the factors encompassing diamond minig, social corporate responsibility is applied, that is the back door of evading the questioning the credibility of any activity that might cause harm to the enviroment, but that should not be assumed that everything is okay both the social and environmental factors need to be checked know and then (Prelas, 2018).
The Literature Review
To get a better understanding of the diamonds, and the controversy that surrounds it, the history of diamonds and its effects in the mining areas must be considered. Therefore, we bring into light some of the past views concerning diamonds (Hall, 2013). Furthermore, in this review, we are going to stress on the two sides of the controversy, starting with the pro side, which favors the diamonds due to its importance to the economy. The next one is the con side which argues against diamonds because of its harmful effects on the environment in the areas they are being mined.
A Brief History of Diamond and its Controversy
The diamonds are believed to be formed chemically in the earth’s core over millions of years ago. It’s believed that the name Diamond has a Greek origin-ADAMAS, which means unconquerable. They are formed as a result of the intense heat which is associated with pressure in the mantle which reacted with carbon to form crystalline particles known as diamonds. Diamonds are mostly found in Russia, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Austria, Canada, and South Africa. A pure diamond is colorless or transparent in color but the other colors such as pink, black, red among others. The impurities such as the nitrogen atoms found in the diamonds are the ones which cause the different colors of the diamonds. The more colorless the diamond is, the more valuable it would be. Diamonds are costly because they are a unique and valuable type of gemstone and it is scarce to find diamonds with excellent color as they are affected by impurities found in them. Even though Diamonds are considered expensive, its market has continued to grow with the increase in its demand. However, there is the emergence of controversies associated with Diamond and Diamond activities that have come to the attention of some scholars and environmentalist. Some of these controversies include the following.
The Pro Side of Controversy
Diamond mining has had various benefits in the world economy at large, having in mind that, it is a source of income to many people. A lot of people depend on the mining of diamond as a way of their likelihood. According to an article named artisanal mining. The extraction of diamond has significantly created employment opportunities for many millions of people through the world, but as the diamond mines are also depreciating making the employment opportunities to reduce significantly. Governments have been able to provide amenities to countries that take part in the business basically improving their livelihoods, for instance free education through all the levels and other sectors such as amedical through provision of low services and building hospital and clinics (Bieri, 2016). Also, the infrastructures such as the roads and power have been developed which has made trade easy as the people can quickly move from one area to another. These are the benefits come from diamond mining, diamond mining has many benefits, there are still many problems arising from it which should be controlled to avoid greater damages.
The Con Side of Controversy
Extraction of mining has posed severe damage to the environment and ecosystem as a whole. Diamond mining involves the production of large quantity of waste such that disposing of them poses a tremendous challenge for the mining industries leading to a significant impact on the environment and degradation of the aquatic ecosystem (Bieri, 2016). Even though diamond mining is less risky compared to the mining of other metals because less toxic chemicals are used, they have some health drawbacks. In mines using artisanal approach to mine that requires miners to always stand in stagnant water so that they can wash the gravel to get the gem making the sites incubator for diseases. According to Bieri, there is the assertion that diamond just as any other business that comes with great fortune, definitely has exploitations. For example, abuse of human rights and exploitation of the miners whereby their main voice are human rights activists. The blood diamond being the best example of civil war that is financed by the proceeds of Diamond sold to merchants directly or those that were being smuggled into neighboring countries, these proceeds were used to buy firearms for rebel groups that led and conducted extremist campaigns that brought a lot of suffering to the civilian (“Blood Diamond”). Also, to not to forget that as much as the diamond mining has environmental degradation issues, meaning that the ecosystem within it is affected such as the wild animals, basically they are displaced as vegetation is cleared which was their habitat, this is where the diamond mining takes place. This might to the extinction of some major species of plants and animals in the long run (Bieri, 2016).
While there is continued debate about the Diamond mining activities and its relationship to the environmental degradation, there have been various actions that have been taken into consideration to ensure that although these activities continue to take place, the environment is not severely damaged and ecosystem is wholeheartedly protected from being infringed (Hannington et al.2017). Hence Diamond mining is a phenomenon that comes with its own challenges as well as benefits. But the fact remains that the beneficiaries end up affecting other aspects of the world such as economically and social, hence important to establish a balance between the two.
Maconachie, R., & Binns, T. (2007). Beyond the resource curse? Diamond mining, development, and post-conflict reconstruction in Sierra Leone. Resources Policy, 32(3), 104-115.
Prelas M.A (2018). Handbook of industrial diamonds and diamond films. Routledge
Bieri, F. (2016). From blood diamonds to the Kimberley Process: How NGOs cleaned up the global diamond industry. Routledge.
Hannington, M., Petersen, S., & Krätschell, A. (2017). Subsea mining moves closer to shore — nature Geoscience
Hall, R. (2013). Diamond mining in Canada’s Northwest Territories: A colonial continuity. Antipode, 45(2), 376-393.
Diamond Development Initiative, retrieved from http://www.ddiglobal.org/artisanal-mining/issues
Blood diamond Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/blood-diamond
Dimond Mining in South Africa, by Hayley Mathews retrieved from https://hayleymatthews-diamondmining-southafrica.weebly.com/
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