Examine three (3) differences between DNA and RNA then explain two (2) main reasons why DNA is the most favorable molecule for genetic material. Next suggest how RNA compares to DNA in regards to genetic material.

“DNA and RNA, Genes, Mutations, and Gene Therapies”

Note: Online students, please respond to one (1) of the following four (4) bulleted items.

  • Examine three (3) differences between DNA and RNA then explain two (2) main reasons why DNA is the most favorable molecule for genetic material. Next suggest how RNA compares to DNA in regards to genetic material.
  • Go to The Guardian website and read the article titled “Mind-control device lets people alter genes in mice through power of thought” found here. Next discuss three (3) main points of the article you found most significant then explain two (2) ways the article you read relates to this week’s lesson. Provide examples of this relation with your response.
  • Mutations are the original source of genetic variation. Explain how mutations can be either beneficial or harmful then provide an example for each. Next identify a disease, which is caused by a mutation, and then describe the biological basis of your chosen disease. In your response be sure to note the exact disease causing mutation.
  • Briefly describe the biology behind DNA-based Vaccines and Gene Therapy. Next suggest what you believe are the major similarities and differences between these two (2) therapies. Which do you believe is the best option? Justify your response.

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DNA is an acronym for deoxyribonucleic acid, whereas RNA stands for ribonucleic acid. Even though both DNA and RNA carry genetic content, there are a number of differences between them. In review, DNA is composed of the sugar deoxyribose, whereas RNA consists of the sugar ribose. The only distinction between ribose and deoxyribose is based on the fact that ribose contains more –OH group than deoxyribose that contains –H connected to the second (2′) carbon ring. Secondly, carbon is a double stranded molecule whereas RNA is a single stranded molecule. Thirdly, DNA is stable under alkaline conditions whereas RNA is not stable (Kurth & Mochizuki, 2009). In general, DNA is the most favored genetic material because it is stable. In this case, RNA often undergoes hydrolysis about 100 times faster than DNA, an aspect that makes DNA a more stable molecule. Moreover, DNA is most favored because it is more easily repaired due to the presence of thymine instead of uracil. In this case, the cell establishes all uracil based found in DNA that have undergone cytosine deamination, and thus can repair the DNA molecule. Finally, DNA compares to DNA in regard to genetic material in that during base paring, Adenine often pairs with Thymine (AT) in DNA while Adenine pairs with Uracil (AU) in RNA. However, Guanine often pairs with Cytosine (GC) in both DNA and RNA. Reference Kurth, H. M., & Mochizuki, K. (2009). Non-coding RNA: A bridge between small RNA and DNA. RNA Biology, 6(2), 138-140. doi:10.4161/rna.6.2.7792

 

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