All sections carry equal marks. Answer all questions. Total marks: 10
A: i: Draw and describe the structure of a plant cell and animal cell.
ii: Differentiate Mitosis and Meiosis, give one example for each type of cell division.
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B: i: Define and differentiate aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
ii: What is phage: draw and describe.
C: Choose the best answer:
1) An antibiotic kills 99.9% of a bacterial population. You would expect the next generation of bacteria to
A) be just as susceptible to that antibiotic as was the previous generation.
B) be more resistant to that antibiotic.
C) die out due to the drastic decrease in population size.
D) be more contagious than the prior generation.
2) Watching salt crystals form as ocean water evaporates, a student says, “Look—more and more crystals are appearing. The ocean water is alive!” Which statement is an accurate evaluation of the student’s remark?
A) The student is correct: Crystals are ordered structures and they are reproducing, so the ocean water is alive.
B) The student is correct because crystals are formed by processing energy from the sun to create new structures, so ocean water is alive.
C) The student is incorrect because the solution is processing energy from the sun rather than gaining energy from other organisms, so the ocean water is not alive.
D) The student is incorrect because all of the crystals reproduce the same kind of crystals with no variation to provide adaptation, so the ocean water is not alive.
3) The four most common elements in living organisms are
A) C, H, O, Fe.
B) C, H, O, Na.
C) C, H, O, N.
D) C, N, O, Na.
4) Typically, nitrogen atoms are composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons. An isotope of nitrogen could
A) be positively charged.
B) be negatively charged.
C) have more protons than the usual nitrogen atom.
D) have more neutrons than the usual nitrogen atom.
5) In plants, the process of photosynthesis produces glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water. Which of the following options about photosynthesis is consistent with this statement?
A) All of the carbon atoms in glucose came from carbon dioxide.
B) More atoms are present at the beginning than at the end.
C) More carbon dioxide is released from the plant than is absorbed.
D) Water is synthesized by the plant from H2 and O2.
6) How will a lower ocean pH caused by ocean acidification affect coral reefs?
A) Coral reefs will grow faster because there are more carbonate ions available.
B) Coral reefs will grow slower because there are fewer carbonate ions available.
C) Coral reefs will grow faster because there are more bicarbonate ions available.
D) Coral reefs will grow slower because there are fewer bicarbonate ions available.
7) Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration, in which glucose is used to generate ATP to power the cell. The major chemical reaction that takes place in glycolysis (ignoring some other reactants and products) is the conversion of glucose (C6H12O6) to pyruvate (C3H4O3) and hydrogen ions (H+). Using this information, what is the correct equation for the glycolysis chemical reaction?
A) C6H12O6 → C3H4O3 + H+
B) C6H12O6 → 2 C3H4O3 + 2 H+
C) C6H12O6 → 2 C3H4O3 + H+
D) 2 C6H12O6 → C3H4O3 + 2 H+
8) Which of the following is a carboxyl group?
9) If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of heart disease, you would use olive oil that
A) is liquid at room temperature.
B) is hydrogenated.
C) is modified to be solid at room temperature.
D) has lard added to it.
10) How are these two amino acids attached?
A) amino group to amino group
B) amino group to carboxyl group
C) carboxylic acid group to carboxyl group
D) through a hydrolysis reaction