Consider the following two research questions:
A researcher wants to determine if overall course grade is higher in EPY in online or in person courses. In Scenario A, students select which type of format in which to enroll. In Scenario B, the researcher assigns students to either the online or in person format.
Scenario A is a causal comparative study and type of format is a grouping variable. .
Scenario B is an experimental study and type of format is the IV.
Overall course grade is the DV.