An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year: Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month 12,000 Roller-skating injuries in Metroville 600 Total number of residents injured from roller-skating 1,800 Total number of deaths from roller-skating 90 Total number of deaths from all causes 900 The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:  Answer 90/600 × 100,000 90/100,000 × 100,000 90/1,800 × 100,000 90/900 × 100,000 

Question 14

Indicate the level of prevention that is represented by pasteurization of milk

Answer

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Primary Prevention Active

Primary Prevention Passive

Secondary Prevention

Tertiary Prevention

Question 15

An epidemiologic survey of roller-skating injuries in Metroville, a city with a population of 100,000 (during the midpoint of the year), produced the following data for a particular year:

Number of skaters in Metroville during any given month 12,000 Roller-skating injuries in Metroville 600 Total number of residents injured from roller-skating 1,800 Total number of deaths from roller-skating 90 Total number of deaths from all causes 900

The cause-specific mortality rate from roller-skating was:

Answer

90/600 × 100,000

90/100,000 × 100,000

90/1,800 × 100,000

90/900 × 100,000

Question 16

Blood pressure measurements on adult males 30-39 years of age were obtained in a survey of a representative sample of Twin Cities households. To compare the frequency of hypertension in the white and non-white population surveyed, the most appropriate measure is the: Answer

incidence rate

prevalence

race-specific incidence rate

race-specific prevalence

race-specific age-adjusted prevalence Question 17

Determining workload and planning the scope of facilities and manpower needs, particularly for chronic disease. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data? Answer

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 18

Estimating the frequency of exposure. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

Answer

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 19

The risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by: Answer

the mortality rate from that disease in the 0-4 age group.

a spot map that records all cases of the disease in the past year.

the period prevalence for that disease during the past year.

the incidence rate (cumulative incidence) for that disease in a given period of time.

Question 20

To express the burden or extent of some condition or attribute in a population. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

Answer

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 21

The fundamental tool for etiologic studies of both acute and chronic diseases. Is this a use for incidence or prevalence data?

Answer

This is a use primarily for incidence data.

This is a use primarily for prevalence data.

This application could apply equally for both incidence and prevalence data.

This is a use for neither incidence data nor prevalence data.

Question 22

Beach City has a rising population of 500,000 robust, fertile males and 450,000 robust, fertile females. If there were 4,000 live births, 3 fetal deaths, and 40 maternal deaths, what is the crude birth rate?

Answer

4,000/500,000 × 1,000

4,000/450,000 × 1,000

4,000/950,000 × 1,000

4,003/950,000 × 1,000

3,997/950,000 × 1,000

Question 23

Age-specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by sex in the United States generally show the following sex differences:

Answer

Rates for males are higher than rates for females from birth to age 85 and older.

Rates for females are higher than rates for males from birth to age 85 and older.

Rates for males are higher than rates for females from age 6 to age 85 and older.

Rates for males are equal to rates for females during the first 5 years of life.

Question 24

A null hypothesis is most similar to which of the following?

Answer

Positive declaration

Negative declaration

Implicit question

Explicit question

Question 25

Reasons for gender differences in mortality may include:

Answer

greater risk taking by women

greater frequency of smoking among men

higher prevalence of coronary-prone behavior among women

less frequency of smoking among men

Question 26

Lung cancer mortality among women is increasing faster than among men. What factor(s) would most likely account for this increased cancer rate?

Answer

Younger women are smoking more.

Older women are smoking more.

Women are smoking less.

Men are smoking more Question 27

Descriptive epidemiology has the following characteristics (Choose the incorrect option): Answer

provides the basis for planning and evaluation of health services.

allows causal inference from descriptive data.

allows comparisons by age, sex, and race.

uses case reports, case series, and cross-sectional studies.

identifies problems to be studied by analytic methods.

Question 28

Studies of nativity and migration have reported that:

Answer

admission rates of foreign-born persons to mental hospitals were lower than for native-born persons

diseases found in less developed regions are no longer a problem in the United States

immunization programs in developing countries have been highly successful

some migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases

Question 29

Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the downward-drift hypothesis for schizophrenia?

Answer

The conditions of life in lower-class society favor its development.

The conditions of life in upper-class society favor its development.

The illness leads to the clustering of psychosis in the impoverished areas of a city.

The illness is associated with increases in creative talents, which contribute to wealth-enhancing achievements.

Question 30

Which of Mill’s four canons suggests that there is an association between frequency of disease and the potency of a causative factor?

Answer

Difference

Agreement

Concomitant variation

Residues

 

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